|Location||Northern Territory, Australia|
Stephen Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 to Frank and Isobel Hawking. Despite their families' financial constraints, both parents attended the University of Oxford, where Frank studied medicine and Isobel, Philosophy, Politics and Economics. The two met shortly after the beginning of the Second World War at a medical research institute where she was working as a secretary and he as a medical researcher. They lived in Highgate, but as London was under attack in those years, his mother went to Oxford to give birth in greater safety. Stephen has two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward. He began his schooling at the Byron House School; he later blamed its "progressive methods" for his failure to learn to read while at the school.
In 1950, when his father became head of the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans, Hertfordshire. The eight-year-old Hawking attended St Albans High School for Girls for a few months; at that time, younger boys could attend one of the houses. In St Albans, the family were considered highly intelligent and somewhat eccentric; meals were often spent with each person silently reading a book. They lived a frugal existence in a large, cluttered, and poorly maintained house, and travelled in a converted London taxicab. During one of Hawking's father's frequent absences working in Africa, the rest of the family spent four months in Majorca visiting his mother's friend Beryl and her husband, the poet Robert Graves. Politically, Hawking's mother had been "dissatisfied with a Parliamentary Monarchy, exploring alternatives by exposing herself to both fascist and communist ideologies and practices," and "had been a member of the Young Communist League." 
On their return to England, Hawking attended Radlett School for a year and from September 1952, St Alban